Metaphor A Practical Introduction

Topics: Conceptual metaphor, Metaphor, Cognitive linguistics Pages: 396 (141624 words) Published: November 25, 2014
M E TA P H O R

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METAPHOR
A Practical Introduction
Second Edition

zoltán kövecses
Exercises written with
Réka Benczes
Zsuzsanna Bokor
Szilvia Csábi
Orsolya Lazányi
Eszter Nucz

1
2010

3
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Copyright © 2010 by Zoltán Kövecses
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Kövecses, Zoltán.
Metaphor : a practical introduction / Zoltán Kövecses ; exercises written with Szilvia Csábi . . . [et al.].—2nd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-19-537494-0 (pbk.)
1. Metaphor. I. Csábi, Szilvia. II. Title.
PN228.M4K68 2009
808—dc22
2009004385

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Printed in the United States of America
on acid-free paper

To
george
&
mark

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Preface to the Second Edition

n the past six to ten years the theory of conceptual metaphor has become the most influential and widely used theory of metaphor. Some of the new developments can be found in such diverse areas of research as

I

the neural theory of metaphor
the theory of conceptual integration
metaphor in discourse
the relationship between embodiment and metaphor
the embeddedness of metaphor in cultural context
the nature of mappings
metaphor in gestures
the study of multimodal metaphor
metaphor identification
metaphor processing
the corpus linguistic study of metaphor
emotion metaphors
the theory of metonymy
metaphor in foreign language teaching
metaphor in the study of grammar
and others.

All of these areas are now discussed in this second edition of Metaphor: A Practical Introduction, and two of them, the embodiment of emotion metaphors and metaphor in discourse, have received their own independent chapters. The two new chapters are chapter 8, “Cognitive Models, Metaphors, and Embodiment,” and chapter 18, “Metaphor in Discourse.” In the last chapter of the book, by studying a single example, I have made an attempt to investigate the relationships among various strands of what is commonly called “conceptual metaphor theory.” I have also tried to update the literature throughout as fully as I could. In addition, all figures have been redrawn, thus providing the reader with a

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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

more uniform, more esthetically pleasing, and more illuminating visual representation of sometimes complex ideas. Last but not least, dozens of new exercises have been added to the old ones, we hope, making the book even more “user-friendly” and more fun to study from.

At the same time, however, several of the new additions reflect exciting, often challenging, and sometimes controversial recent research findings that, at least my hope is, give food for thought not only for interested students but also for researchers and teachers alike.

Preface to the First Edition:
The Study of Metaphor

or most of us, metaphor is a figure of speech in which one thing is compared with another by saying that one is the other, as in He is a lion. Or, as the Encyclopaedia Britannica puts it: “metaphor...

Bibliography: Adamson, Tim, Greg Johnson, Tim Rohrer, and Howard Lam. 1996. Metaphors
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Aitchison, Jean. 1987. Words in the Mind. Oxford: Blackwell.
Alexander, R. J. 1987. Problems in understanding and teaching idiomaticity in
English
Allbritton, David W. 1995. When metaphors function as schemas: Some
cognitive effects of conceptual metaphors
Alverson, Hoyt. 1994. Semantics and Experience. Universal Metaphors of
Time in English, Mandarin, Hindi, and Sesotho
Balaban, Victor. 1999. Self and agency in religious discourse: Perceptual
metaphors for knowledge at Marian apparition site
Barcelona, Antonio. 1986. On the concept of depression in American English:
A cognitive approach
———. 1995. Metaphorical models of romantic love in Romeo and Juliet.
———. 2000a. On the plausibility of claiming a metonymic motivation for
conceptual metaphor
———, ed. 2000b. Metaphor and Metonymy at the Crossroads: A Cognitive
Perspective
———. 2002a. Clarifying and applying the notions of metaphor and metonymy
within cognitive linguistics: An update
———. 2003. Metonymy in cognitive linguistics: An analysis and a few
modest proposals
———. 2005. The multilevel operation of metonymy in grammar and
discourse, with particular attention to metonymic chains
———. 2008. Reviewing the properties of metonymy as a technical construct,
with particular attention to the view of metonymy as a prototype category.
Barcelona, Antonio, and Cristina Soriano. 2004. Metaphorical
conceptualization in English and Spanish
Baugh, A. C., and T. Cable. 1983. A History of the English Language. 3rd ed.
Belch, G. E., and M. Belch. 1990. An Introduction to Advertising and
Promotion Management
Bellah, R. N., R. Madsen, W. M. Sullivan, A. Swidler, and S. M. Tipton. 1985.
———, eds. 1988. Individualism and Commitment in American Life. New
York: Harper and Row.
Benczes, Réka. 2006. Creative Compounding in English: The Semantics of
Metaphorical and Metonymical Noun-Noun Combination
———. 2008. North American slavery: A cognitive linguist’s perspective. In
Magyarics Tamás and Lojkó Miklós, eds., Emlékkönyv Frank Tibor 60.
Black, Max. 1979. More about metaphor. In Andrew Ortony, ed., Metaphor
and Thought, 19–43
Boers, Frank. 1999. When a bodily source domain becomes prominent. In
Raymond Gibbs and Gerard Steen, eds., Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics,
———. 2000. Metaphor awareness and vocabulary retention. Applied
Linguistics 21: 553–571.
Boers, Frank, and Seth Lindstromberg. 2006. Cognitive linguistic applications in
second or foreign language instruction: Rationale, proposals and evaluation.
———, eds. 2008. Cognitive Linguistic Approaches to Teaching Vocabulary
and Phraseology
Bokor, Zsuzsanna. 1997. Body-Based Constructionism in the Conceptualization
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