Analyze how political, religious, and social factors affected the work of scientists in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Historical Background: Between 1500 and 1700, scientists, or natural philosophers as they were called, developed a new scientific worldview. A heliocentric model of the universe replaced the traditional geocentric model. Different methods for discovering scientific laws were developed. Scientists envisioned a universe composed of matter in motion, which could best be understood through mathematics and experiment. Investigators of nature organized into scientific disciplines and societies were founded throughout Europe to facilitate the study of scientific questions.
Analyzes bias or point of view in at least three documents. • Relates authorial point of view to author’s place (position, status, etc.) OR • Evaluates the reliability of the source OR • Recognizes that different kinds of documents serve different purposes OR • Analyzes tone or intent of documents—three weak attempts equal one point of view. • Point of view can be achieved collectively through analysis of motives of a group or explanations of reasons for group’s attitudes; counts as one point of view. • Attribution may NOT be sufficient to demonstrate point of view.
Analyzes documents by grouping them in at least three groups. A group must contain at least two documents. A fallacious grouping receives no credit.
Examples of possible groups: Political (1, 2,5, 6, 7, 10, 11) Religious (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 12) Social (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11) Religious figures (1, 2, 3, 5) Philosophers/scientists (1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12) Political figures (10, 11)
Document 1. Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish priest and astronomer, dedication to Pope Paul III in Copernicus’ book On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, 1543. Does not seek to avoid criticism. Book dedicated to Pope Paul because of his importance and love of science. The Pope has influence to block slander of the...
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