Unit1 Assignment: Integrated Circuit Technology
1. The two key components that John von Neumann created and are part of everyone’s computer today are; a central processing unit (CPU) and a storage structure (memory). 2. The major problem with John von Neumann original design was fact that the memory was physically separated from the CPU. This problem was known as the von Neumann bottleneck” and to alleviate this issue the concept of memory cache was developed. 3. The transistor replaced the vacuum tubes and made them a better alternative because transistor much smaller and consumed significantly less power making the computer faster and more efficient. 4. The integrated circuit(IC) was invented in the late 1950s. 5. Moore’s law state that each time a new chip was developed, it contained roughly twice as much capacity as its predecessor and each chip was released 18 to 24 months of the previous chip. 6. Intel, Microsoft and AMD are the prime developers of PC technology. 7. Apple used proprietary hardware and software designs that it was unwilling to license to other companies. 8. Microsoft controls the operating systems and it uses it as leverage to also control other types of PC software. 9. Compaq and phoenix software legally duplicated it IBM PC BIOS software by an ingenious form of reserve engineering. They had two groups of engineers, the second group have never seen IBM BIOS code. The first group wrote a detailed description of what it did. The second group read the description given by the first group and wrote a new BIOS from scratch that did everything the first group had described. 10. Intel controls the PC hardware standard because it controls the PC motherboard and most of the components on it. 11. A “White Box” is a generic PC assembled from a collection of industry-standard, commercially available components. The industry standard components are fully interchangeable making them perfect for future upgrades or repairs....
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